Here’s a look at the disease’s origins, treatment, and global response HIV and AIDS.
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
AIDS Stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.
HIV AIDS Spread through sexual contact with an infected person, sharing needles with an infected person, transfusion of infected blood, or through an infected mother.
People living with HIV experience three phases Infect:
- Acute infection, or acute retroviral syndrome, can produce flu-like symptoms in the first month after infection.
- Clinical latency, or asymptomatic HIV infection, in which HIV reproduces at low levels.
- AIDS, in which the number of CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (as opposed to the normal level of 500-1,500).
Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 can cause AIDS. HIV-1 is the most common human immunodeficiency virus; HIV-2 is mainly found in West Africa.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) involves taking a mixture of HIV medicines to treat the virus. In 1987, azidethymidine (AZT) became the first drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.
38.4 million – the number of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide in 2021.
5.9 million – the approximate number of people globally who are unaware they are living with HIV by 2021.
160,000 – Newly infected children worldwide in 2021.
1.5 million – New infections worldwide in 2021.
650,000 – Approx. global AIDS-related deaths in 2021.
Of the 4,500 new daily infections in 2019, 59% were in sub-Saharan Africa.
40.1 million – the number of AIDS-related deaths worldwide since the start of the AIDS epidemic.
sub-saharan africa Consists of the following countries: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
1981 – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the first report of men in Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco who were previously healthy and Suffering from rare cancer and pneumonia with “opportunistic infection”.
1982 – The CDC first called the disease AIDS.
1983 – French and American researchers have determined that AIDS is caused by HIV.
1985 – A blood test to detect HIV was developed.
December 1, 1988 – the first World AIDS Day.
1999 – Researchers in the US have found evidence that HIV-1 likely originated in chimpanzee populations in West Africa. The virus appears to have spread to people who hunted, butchered and consumed chimpanzees for food.
January 29, 2003 – In his State of the Union address, US President George W. Bush commitment to dramatically Scaling up funding to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa.
May 27, 2003 – bush signs HR 1298, United States Fight Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act of 2003, also known as PEPFAR (President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief), providing $15 billion over the next five years to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria abroad, especially in Africa.
July 30, 2008 – HR 5501, Tom Lantos and Henry J. Hyde US Global Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Reauthorization Act of 2008, Becomes law and authorizes up to $48 billion to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria globally. By 2013, PEPFAR plans to work with host countries to treat at least 4 million people, prevent 12 million new infections, and provide care to 12 million people.
October 2011 – In his book The Origins of AIDS, Dr. Jacques Pepin traces the emergence and subsequent development of HIV/AIDS, showing that the initial AIDS outbreaks started much earlier than previously thought.
July 24, 2012 – Doctors announce at 19th International AIDS Conference Timothy Ray Brown, dubbed the “Berlin patient,” has been clinically “cured” of HIV. Brown was diagnosed with leukemia, and in 2007 he underwent a bone marrow transplant using bone marrow from a donor with an HIV-resistant mutation. He no longer has detectable HIV.
March 3, 2013 – A baby born with HIV has been “functionally cured”, researchers have announced. The Mississippi-born child received high doses of antiretroviral drugs within 30 hours of birth. One year later, the child now has detectable levels of the virus in the blood, According to scientists involved in her case, 27 months after stopping antiretroviral drugs.
June 18, 2013 – Commemorating the tenth anniversary of PEPFAR, secretary of state john kerry Announcement that the one millionth child was born HIV-free as a result of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) program.
March 14, 2014 – The CDC reported a case of possible female-to-female HIV transmission. Unlike other previously published cases involving female-to-female transmission, this case excluded other risk factors for HIV transmission.
July 24, 2017 – A 9 year old from South Africa The disease has been reported to be in remission for more than eight years without treatment, according to Dr. Avy Violari, who presented at the 9th International AIDS Society HIV Scientific Conference in Paris.
November 2018 – According to PEPFAR’s website, they have “Enabling life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than 14.6 million men, women and children” Since 2003.
March 5, 2019 – According to published in nature magazinethe second person had sustained remission from HIV-1. The “London patient” was treated with a stem cell transplant from a donor with an HIV resistance mutation. The London patient has been in remission for 18 months since he stopped taking antiretroviral drugs. The study also included a possible third remission after a stem cell transplant, dubbed the “Düsseldorf patient”.
May 2, 2019 – A study of nearly 1,000 gay male couples in which one HIV-infected partner was on antiretroviral therapy (ART) found no new cases of HIV-negative partner transmission during condom-free sex . A landmark eight years of study, Published in The Lancet Medical Journal Shows that the risk of transmitting the HIV virus can be eliminated with effective drug treatment.
October 7, 2019 – Governor Gavin Newsom signs bill Beginning January 1, 2020, HIV prevention medicines will be available without a prescription in California. The drugs covered by the new legislation are pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), both of which help prevent HIV infection. California became the first U.S. state to allow pharmacists to deliver drugs without a doctor’s prescription.
November 6, 2019 – According to a study published in the Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, A team of scientists has discovered a new strain of HIV. According to Abbott Laboratories, which conducted the research with the University of Missouri in Kansas City, the strain is part of the M-group version of HIV-1, the same family of viral subtypes responsible for the global HIV pandemic.
June 15, 2020 – A study published in JAMA Network Open Journal shows that if antiretroviral treatment is started early in infection, the life expectancy of HIV-infected people approaches that of people who are not infected. However, disparities remain in the number of chronic health problems that people living with HIV endure.
July 7, 2020 – Scientists at the 23rd International AIDS Conference announce Injections of the experimental drug cabotevir, taken every eight weeks, are more effective at preventing HIV than daily oral pills, a new study finds. It was also announced that a Brazilian man may be the first person to achieve long-term HIV remission after receiving only antiviral drug therapy rather than a stem cell transplant.
November 16, 2021 – a new study found one The second patient’s body appeared to have rid itself of HIV. The patient, originally from the Argentine city of Esperanza, showed no evidence of intact HIV in a large number of her cells, suggesting she may have naturally achieved what they had, an international team of scientists reports in the Annals of Internal Medicine. “Bactericidal therapy” for HIV infection described. The 30-year-old woman in the new study is only the second patient described to achieve this type of sterilization cure without the help of a stem cell transplant or other treatments.
December 20, 2021 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that it has approved the The first injectable drug for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of sexually acquiring HIV.
February 15, 2022 – An American woman becomes the third known entry HIV relief, And the first biracial woman, thanks to a transplant stem cell From cord blood, according to research presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.
December 1, 2022 – An experimental HIV vaccine called eOD-GT8 60mer, In a Phase 1 study, it was found to induce broadly neutralizing antibody precursors in a small group of volunteers. Clinical trial results, published in the journal scienceshowing that a two-dose regimen of the vaccine, eight weeks apart, can elicit an immune response against the human immunodeficiency virus.